England’s Hatton had battled with Rory McIlory at the top of the leaderboard throughout the week, but a closing 72 saw McIlory finish five shots off the lead at the Abu Dhabi Golf Club.
It hands Hatton, 29, an early lead in the Race to Dubai rankings — the lucrative season-long competition to determine the best player on the European Tour.
Hatton started the day one shot back from McIlroy and one ahead of compatriot Tommy Fleetwood.
But both McIlroy and Fleetwood struggled on the final day, the former carding four bogeys and the latter shooting 73 after a double bogey on the 17th hole.
By contrast, Hatton avoided missteps on Sunday as he shot six birdies to equal John Rahm’s record of four Rolex Series titles.
The victory could also see Hatton, who secured his first PGA Tour win last year, move into the top five of the golf world rankings.
After a final round 66 featuring seven birdies and an eagle on the 10th, Australia’s Jason Scrivener moved ahead of McIlory to finish second in Dubai.
The European Tour remains in Abu Dhabi for next weekend’s Dubai Desert Classic.